A chronograph is used to measure time which has elapsed from a given moment. Its uses include timing the duration of a sporting event using the chronograph hand, accompanied by minute and hour counters. A chronograph therefore has two independent measuring systems: one to indicate the time and another to measure short periods of time. A chronometer is a high-precision mechanical watch, which has been awarded an official certificate by the official Swiss chronometer inspectorate (COSC). Chronometer movements undergo precision testing for 15 days and 15 nights in various positions and at different temperatures, as well as water resistance tests. To earn the title of chronometer, the mechanical movement's average precision must be between -4/+6 seconds per day. It is therefore possible for a chronograph to be a chronometer, but only if it has been awarded the certificate by the COSC. A quartz watch can also be certified as a chronometer by the COSC. For this, the movement must strictly be equipped with an electronic system to offset variations in precision caused by temperature changes. Quartz chronometers are tested for 11 days in one position and at three different temperatures. Quartz chronometers are up to 10 times more accurate than a standard quartz watch (± 0.07 seconds per day).
Both types of movement are mechanical movements, but are wound in different ways. Manual-winding watches must be wound every day by hand using the crown, whereas self-winding watches are wound by an internal rotor which responds to wrist movements.
Autoquartz movements combine the advantages of a quartz watch and a self-winding watch. If worn for 60 to 80 days, the movement reaches a maximum power reserve of 100 days. It offers the precision of a quartz movement and functions without a battery, instead having an accumulator which recharge
On a watch, a tachymeter is used to measure average speed over a given distance. To be specific it is a chronograph with a graduated scale on the dial or the glass, on which speed can be read off in kilometres per hour based on a 1000m distance. To read the tachymeter, only the chronograph's central hand is used. Start the chronograph and stop it once 1000m have been travelled. You can then read off the speed indicated on the dial by the chronograph's central hand. Example for calculating the speed of a car: the chronograph indicates that the distance of 1000m has been covered in 30 seconds. The chronograph's central hand indicates 120 on the tachymeter scale. The average speed over 1000m is therefore 120 km per hour.s automatically from the movement of the wrist. The swinging movements of your wrist cause an oscillating weight to rotate. Each of its rotation activates a micro-generator which in turn charges an accumulator with electrical energy.
A bezel is an adjustable ring on the case, often used to record additional data, such as the duration of an event or to read the time in a second time zone. A bidirectional bezel can rotate in both directions, clockwise and anticlockwise. A unidirectional bezel only turns one way to prevent it accidentally turning in the wrong direction and therefore giving a false reading. When measuring diving time, for example, any impact or false manoeuvre can only reduce the pre-set limits, preventing the user from having an exaggerated interpretation of air or decompression time. To use a unidirectional bezel for deep-sea diving, place the bezel's main indicator (initially positioned at 12 o'clock) at the projected time for the end of the dive. When the minute hand meets the main indicator, the diving time will have been reached. For example, for a 30-minute dive starting at 15:00, align the bezel's main indicator with 15:30 (at six o'clock) just before diving. The minute will take 30 minutes to reach the bezel's main indicator, thereby indicating remaining diving time.
This function allows the chronograph to be reset to zero without having to stop the chronogrph first. This is often used in aviation, where several legs of a route are flown for specific periods of time in sequence. It saves time by beginning timing of the next leg without having to stop, reset and restart the chronograph.
Like any high-precision instrument, a watch needs to be serviced regularly to ensure optimum functioning. The servicing frequency depends on the model, the climate and the care you take of it. As a general rule, we recommend that you have a service carried out every four to five years.
Battery life usually varies between two and five years depending on the type of watch, its dimensions and the amount of energy required by its various functions. For example, a watch whose chronograph is activated continually will have a higher energy consumption than a watch which only displays hours and minutes. Some watches have a battery EOL (End Of Life) indicator. When the second hand begins to jump every four seconds, it is time to have the battery replaced.
PVD stands for "Physical Vapour Deposition". It is a process performed under vacuum which deposits microscopic particles on the products by ion bombing or sputtering, to form a protecting coating on their surface with a specific colour. Very thin layers (1 μm) of impurity-free components can be obtained which possess high levels of hardness and hypo-allergenic qualities.
Scratch-resistant means “capable of withstanding scratching that occurs with normal everyday use”. Rado high-tech ceramic has a very high level of scratch-resistance. However, there is a risk of scratching if it comes into contact with materials that are as hard as or harder than high-tech ceramic. Particles of these materials can be found in nail files, in granite or in sand. We recommend that you take care of your watch and try to avoid wearing it in situations where it may come into contact with other extremely hard materials.
Since the watch band touches the skin directly, it may become damaged or dirty from perspiration or dust. Lack of care may accelerate deterioration of the band, cause skin irritation or stain the sleeve edge. Please follow the cautions below in order to maintain the best condition of your band as long as possible: Metal band: Even stainless steel bands / bracelets develop rust due to some corrosion / perspiration accumulating between the band / bracelet segments. This applies especially to expensive solid bracelets with gaps between the segments that are relatively narrow and may easily accumulate corrosion / perspiration. This kind of rust may result in a yellow discoloration of your cuff when you perspire. Cleaning method: To prevent rust, wipe off moisture, sweat or dirt with a soft cloth when convenient. To wash the band, apply neutral detergent (mixed with some water) to metal bands / bracelets when stains on the surface are noticeable. For heavy stains, use a tooth brush and remove the stain that has accumulated in the gaps of the band / bracelet segments . Protect the watch head from moisture entering the watch by wrapping it in plastic wrap etc. After washing, take special care to wipe the gaps of the band/bracelet segments with a towel and dry the entire watch throughly. * Some titanium bands use stainless steel pins which have greater durability than titanium. Therefore, even if your watch band is titanium, rust may form in the stainless steel parts. If rust advances, pins may poke out or drop out, and the watch case may fall off the band, or the clasp may not open. If a pin is poking out, it may injure the user. In such a case, refrain from using the watch and contact an Authorized Seiko Service Center for a repair. Leather band: A leather band is more susceptible to discoloration and deterioration from moisture, sweat and direct sunlight than metal bands / bracelets. Leather straps may tear or strap colours fade. Constant care is required and this includes the circumstances in which the watch is worn. Refrain from wearing a watch with a leather band while bathing, swimming and working with water even if the watch itself is water-resistant. In addition, take care when wearing a watch with a light-colored band, as stains will be more visible. Cleaning method: Wipe off moisture and sweat as soon as possible by gently rubbing it with a soft dry cloth, and place it in a well-ventillated area after removing it from the wrist. Do not expose your watch to sunlight for extened periods (eg. on a car dashboard) since this may lead to discoloration/transformation/breakage of your watch’s leather strap. * There are some bands with a back (or even the entire strap) made of synthetic leather, which is more resistant to perspiration compared with a genuine leather band. Nevertheless, constant care for bands is essential in any case. Urethane band: A urethane band is susceptible to discoloration from light, and it may deteriorate from contact with solvents or humidity in the atmosphere. If bands remain wet and in highly humid locations or are exposed to sunlight for extended periods, the rate of deterioration may accelerate and some cracks may appear on the band surface. In addition, a translucent, white, or pale colored band easily adsorbs other colors, resulting in color smears or discoloration. Care should be given to the condition of polyurethane bands, which are often worn for marine sports or outdoor activities. Cleaning method: Wash off any dirt with water and dry throughly with a dry cloth (protect the watch head from water splashes by wrapping it in plastic wrap etc.). * When the band loses elasticity, please contact an Authorized Seiko Service Center to replace it with a new one. If you continue to use the band as it is, it may develop cracks or become brittle over time.
Shocks: - Avoid strong shocks such as dropping on hard surfaces as a watch is a sensitive precision instrument. Water resistance: - Do not put a water resistant watch in water while the crown is pulled out. - Do not turn or pull out the crown when the watch is wet. - Even if a watch is water resistant, avoid placing it directly under running water from a faucet. The water pressure from a faucet is sufficient to result in moisture penetration inside the watch. - The water resistance of a watch is not permanently guaranteed. It is affected by the ageing of gaskets or deformation of watch parts due to an accidental shock. We recommend that you have the water resistance of the watch checked regularly to ensure it’s functionality. - To preserve it’s water resistance as long as possible, wipe off moisture, sweat or dirt with a soft, dry cloth after removing it from the wrist. Swimming in the sea: - After using a water resistant watch in sea water, wash it in fresh water and dry it with a soft cloth. - Do not wash a water resistant watch while the crown is pulled out. - Avoid washing it directly under running water. Wash it in still water in a sink or container. Bath or sauna: - Do not wear the watch while taking a bath or a sauna. Steam, soap or some components of a hot spring may accelerate the deterioration of water resistance performance. Temperature Extremes: - The function of the watch is affected by extreme temperature and by extreme changes in temperature. - Since operational temperature ranges differ for each caliber, please refer to the instruction for your watch caliber. Chemicals: - Do not use solvents or chemicals (i.e. benzine, thinner, bleach) for cleaning a watch. This may cause a chemical reaction and result in deterioration of the watch or a change in the color of the case, band or strap. Crown: - Turn the crown from time to time in order to prevent corrosion of the crown and maintain the flexibility of the gasket. - For a screw-in crown, screw down the crown carefully to prevent penetration of moisture inside the movement. Cleaning: Wipe off moisture, sweat or dirt with a soft cloth after removing it from the wrist to increase the durability of the case back, gaskets and band.
“Kinetic” is one of our unique watches, which contains an internal electrical generator operated by the kinetic movement of the user’s wrist. The generated electricity is stored in a rechargeable battery that requires replacement less frequently than the conventional cell battery in a quartz watch.
The term complicated, when it refers to watches, indicates special functions that the watch is able to perform and display. An example of a complication is a moon phase display. Watches that show only the hours, minutes, and seconds have so-called simple movements. Collectors prize their complicated watches because they display useful information. Perhaps more importantly, a collector appreciates the innovation, skill, and ingenuity that complications represent. We are all familiar with battery-operated digital watches that have myriad functions. However the watchmaker’s complicated watch functions completely mechanically, without a computer chip full of data, or a battery. Some complicated watches can display the date accurately (including leap years), until 2100 and beyond. Other complicated watches can also chime the hour, quarter hour, and minutes, have a stop watch accurate to 1/10 of a second, and display the moon phase. There’s even a complication called the equation of time, which shows the exact solar length of the particular day (only 4 days a year are exactly 24 hours long). A “quartz” watch that has a battery can also have many functions, but they are simply called functions and not complications. Below is a list of complications and a brief explanation of their functions. Alarm Watch –a watch with a built in chime that can be set toring at a specific time. Annual Calendar – a watch that automatically adjusts between 30 day and 31 day months throughout the year. It must be readjusted in February. Automatic Watch – a watch that winds itself with the movement of the wearer’s wrist, usually accomplished with a rotating “rotor” disc that turns and winds the watch. Chronograph – a watch that has a timer function, indicating seconds and sometimes sub-seconds, minutes, and hours. Double Chronograph or Rattrapante – a split-second timer or lap timer that usually has two hands for the “split” time. Dual (or Multiple) Time Zone – A dual time zone displays the time simultaneously in two zones, often indicated by two hour hands, or a sub dial. Multiple time zone watches have additional sub dials, hour hands, or 24 hour indicators on the bezel of the watch. Equation of Time – the actual solar length of most days of the year is not exactly 24 hours and zero minutes. In fact the solar time varies by as much as 16 minutes shorter and 14 minutes longer. This complication shows the equation of time (the addition or subtraction of minutes for the day). Flyback Chronograph – while the chronograph timer is running, it can instantly be reset, without first stopping the motion, resetting, and then starting it again. GMT – a watch that displays Greenwich Mean Time as well as your home time. Can also be used as a dual time zone watch. Leap Year – a watch that displays successive years as 1, 2, 3 and 4, with 4 indicating the leap year. These watches almost always also feature a perpetual calendar. Minute Repeater – a watch that can chime the hours, quarter hours, and minutes on demand with the push of a button or the pull of a lever. The minute repeater has small hammers that strike tiny gongs which create different tones for the minutes, hours and quarter hours. Minute repeater watches were very useful before electricity. They also had a great value for soldiers in the field at night who needed accurate timing but could not see their watches. Moonphase – a sub-dial displaying the phase of the moon. This early complication was especially useful for night travelers who needed the light of the moon to help find their way. Perpetual Calendar – a function that shows the day, month, date and year. It adjusts automatically for February and leap years without needing to be reset, usually until 2100. Power Reserve Indicator – This complication tells the wearer instantly via a sub dial or linear indicator how much time is left before the watch will stop. It’s very useful for automatic watches. It’s also enjoyable to see the indicator rise slowly as the movement of your wrist winds the watch. Tourbillon – a small rotating cage that houses the balance, hairspring and escapement. The rotation of the tourbillon effectively eliminates the pull of gravity on